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Call # KF480.Z9 T83 2010
Author Colker, Ruth
Title Federal disability law in a nutshell / by Ruth Colker, Adam A. Milani
Imprint St. Paul, MN. : West, c2010
Edition 4th ed
Book Cover


Descript. xxxviii, 544 p. ; 19 cm
Series West nutshell series
Nutshell series
Note Rev. ed. of: Federal disability law in a nutshell / by Bonnie Poitras Tucker, Adam A. Milani. 3rd ed. c2004
Includes bibliographical references and index
Subject People with disabilities -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- United States
Discrimination against people with disabilities -- Law and legislation -- United States
Alt Author Milani, Adam
Tucker, Bonnie P., 1939- Federal disability law in a nutshell
OCLC # 647124244
Table of Contents
 Table of Cases 
Chapter 1Introduction and Overview1
1.2Relevant Legislation4
Chapter 2Constitutional Rights9
2.1Equal Protection9
AEqual Protection14
BDue Processes14
CIrrebuttable Presumption15
DSummary of Employment Issues15
Chapter 3Definition of "Disability"?17
3.1General Definition17
3.2Physical Impairment18
3.3Mental Impairment20
3.4Specifically Excluded Criteria21
3.5Alcoholics and Drug Abusers21
3.6Having a Record of an Impairment24
3.7Regarded as Having a Disability25
3.8Major Life Activity26
3.9Substantial Limitation and Mitigating Measures28
3.10Substantial Limitation of the Ability to Work31
Chapter 4The Rehabilitation Act of 197334
4.2Section 504: Introduction34
4.3Section 504: Procedural Issues35
APrivate Right of Action35
BExhaustion of Administrative Remedies40
CEleventh Amendment Immunity42
DStatutes of Limitation45
ERight to Jury Trial46
FStanding to Sue48
GAttorney's Fees50
4.4Section 504: Recipients of Federal Financial Assistance51
AProgram Specificity52
BScope of the Term "Program or Activity"53
C"Recipients" Versus "Beneficiaries"56
DProcurement, Insurance or Guaranty Contracts59
4.5Section 504: Discrimination Solely on the Basis of Disability61
4.6Section 501: Introduction65
4.7Section 501: Procedural Issues68
APrivate Right of Action68
BExhaustion of Administrative Remedies68
CRight to Jury Trial70
DJudicial Review of Agency Action70
4.8Relationship Between Sections 501 and 50470
4.9Relationship Between Section 501 and the ADA71
4.10Section 503: Introduction and Overview72
4.11Relationship Between Section 503 and the ADA74
4.12Section 503: Procedural Issues75
APrivate Right of Action75
BThird Party Beneficiary Actions75
CSection 1983 Actions75
DActions to Enforce Conciliation Agreements76
4.13Section 503: Administrative Procedures and Remedies76
4.14Section 503: Actions Against the OFCCP78
4.15Section 503: Affirmative Action Plans78
Chapter 5Employment Discrimination81
5.1Introduction and Overview81
5.2Entities Subject to the ADA82
5.3Fifteen Employee Threshold84
5.4Former Employees87
5.5Qualified Individual with a Disability87
5.6Inconsistent Statements/Waivers88
5.7Essential Functions90
5.8Scope of the Federal Laws94
5.9Disparate Treatment/Disparate Impact96
5.10Reasonable Accommodations97
5.11Undue Hardship103
5.12Fundamental Alteration105
5.13Collective Bargaining Agreements105
5.14Seniority Systems107
5.15Safety Defense109
5.16Employment Tests and Criteria112
5.17Medical Examinations and Inquiries115
DSpecific Issues in Testing118
5.18Providing an Harassment Free Environment120
5.19Enforcement of ADA Title I121
5.20Remedies for Employment Discrimination123
ASection 501123
BThe ADA126
CSection 504129
DAttorneys' Fees130
ESection 503131
5.21Individual Liability131
Chapter 6Architectural Barriers133
6.1The Architectural Barriers Act133
6.2The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board135
6.3Guidelines and Standards Established Under the ABA140
6.4Section 504 and Architectural Barriers141
6.5Injury Due to Lack of Accessibility145
Chapter 7Access to Programs and Services146
7.2Section 504: Overview146
7.3Title II of the ADA: Overview147
7.4ADA Title II: Program and Facility Accessibility148
7.5Title III of the ADA: Overview150
7.6ADA Title III: Definition of Public Accommodations151
7.7ADA Title III: Commercial Facilities155
7.8Private Clubs156
7.9ADA Title III: Religious Entities156
7.10ADA Titles II and III and Section 504: Qualified Individual With a Disability157
7.11ADA Titles II and III and Section 504: Eligibility Criteria159
7.12ADA Titles II and III and Section 504: Reasonable Accommodations/Modifications161
7.13ADA Titles II and III and Section 504: Integrated Setting165
7.14ADA Titles II and III and Section 504: Safety Defense166
AThreat to Self166
BRisk to Others169
7.15ADA Titles II and III and Section 504: Disparate Impact170
7.16ADA Titles II and III and Section 504: Discrimination Vis-a-vis Other People With Disabilities172
7.17ADA Title III: Provision of Auxiliary Aids and Services173
7.18ADA Title II: Provision of Auxiliary Aids and Services175
7.19ADA Title III: Newly Constructed or Altered Facilities176
7.20ADA Title III: Removal of Barriers from Existing Facilities179
7.21ADA Title III: Landlords/Lessees182
7.22ADA Title III: Franchisors/Franchisees184
7.23ADA Title II: New Construction or Alterations185
7.24ADA Title II: Existing Facilities and Programs186
7.25ADA Title II: Communications189
7.26Differences Between ADA Title II and Section 504190
7.27ADA Title III: Courses and Examinations194
7.28ADA Title II and Section 504: Enforcement, Procedure and Remedies196
7.29ADA Title III: Enforcement and Remedies199
7.30Section 504: Individual Liability202
7.31ADA Title III: Individual Liability203
7.32ADA Title II: Individual Liability203
7.33Section 508: Electronic and Information Technology204
7.34Section 504: Access to Television208
Chapter 8Access Board Guidelines for ADA Titles II and III212
8.2Newly Constructed Buildings213
8.3Alterations to Existing Facilities216
8.4Historic Buildings218
Chapter 9Housing224
9.1The Fair Housing Act Amendments of 1988: Introduction224
9.2FHAA: Discrimination in the Rental or Sale of Housing226
ASale/Rental of Dwellings226
BMulti-Family Dwellings227
CRepresentations and Advertisements228
9.3FHA: Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions229
9.4FHA: Discrimination in the Provision of Brokerage Services230
9.5FHA: Interference or Coercion230
9.6FHA: Disparate Impact Discrimination Prohibited231
9.7FHAA: Zoning232
9.8FHAA: Reasonable Accommodation234
9.9FHAA: Direct Threat Defense235
9.10FHAA: Conflicting State Statutes235
9.11FHA: Enforcement and Remedies236
AAdministrative Enforcement236
BPrivate Enforcement240
CPattern and Practice Litigation241
9.12Section 504243
Chapter 10Postsecondary Education244
10.1Introduction and Overview244
APre-Admission Inquires246
BAdmissions Tests247
CEligibility Criteria252
DDisclosure and Documentation of Disability253
10.3Reasonable Accommodations254
ASuggested Accommodations255
BScope of Reasonable Accommodations259
CInteractive Process262
DPayment for Reasonable Accommodations263
10.5Academic Deference266
10.6Non-Academic Programs and Services267
10.7Notice and Documentation of Disability269
10.9Hostile Learning Environment272
10.10Individuals With Learning Disabilities272
BAccommodations for Accepted Students277
Chapter 11Transportation280
11.1Mass Ground Transportation: Overview280
11.2ADA Title II: Public Entities283
APart I of Division B of Title II283
BPart II of Division B of ADA Title II294
11.3Enforcement of ADA Title II298
11.4ADA Title III: Private Entities298
AProvision of Public Transporation by Private Entities Primarily Engaged in the Business of Transporting People299
BProvision of Public Transportation by Private Entities Not Primarily Engaged in the Business of Transporting People307
CAccessibility Provisions308
11.5Enforcement of ADA Title III Provisions318
11.6Uniform System for Disabled Parking318
11.7Airline Transportation319
ASection 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the ADA319
BThe Air Carrier Access Act of 1986319
Chapter 12ADA: Miscellaneous330
12.2Title IV: Telecommunications Relay Services330
12.3ADA: Public Service Announcements333
12.4Eleventh Amendment Immunity333
12.5Attorneys' Fees and Costs334
12.6Insurance and Benefit Plans337
AInsurance Coverage in the Employment Setting337
BTitle III---Public Accommodations351
12.7Retaliation and Coercion355
12.8Rights Under Other Laws355
12.9Relationship to the Rehabilitation Act356
12.11Applicability to Congress, Presidential Appointees, White House Employees and Previously Exempt State Employees356
12.12Alternate Dispute Resolution357
Chapter 13The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Introduction and Overview361
13.2Federal Enforcement364
AState Plans and Eligiblity for Federal Funds364
13.3Terminology and Concepts366
AChildren With Disablities366
BSpecial Education368
CFree Appropriate Public Education369
DRelated Services370
EIndividualized Education Program371
FLeast Restrictive Environment372
GLocal Educational Agency374
HState Educational Agency374
ISpecific Learning Disabilities375
13.4Procedural Safeguards377
ADevelopment of an Individualized Education Program377
BThe IEP Document380
CDue Process Hearings382
DThe "Stay-Put" Provision386
13.5Confidentiality of and Access to Records391
13.6"Zero Reject" Principle392
13.7Extracurricular Activities394
13.8Infants and Toddlers With Disabilities395
Chapter 14IDEA: Appropriateness/Least Restrictive Environment; Continuum of Educational Options; Related Services405
14.2The Rowley Case407
AStandards to Be Applied by Courts407
BApplication of the Federal Standard412
14.3Incorporation of State Standards416
14.5Extended School Year418
14.6Continuum of Educational Options420
14.7Interrelationship Between LRE and Appropriateness421
14.8Applying the Proper Standard422
14.9Proximity to Home426
14.11Provision of Related Services430
AIssues Concerning Specified Related Services431
B"Medical" Services433
CIssues Concerning Non-specified Related Services436
Chapter 15IDEA: Private Schooling; Persons in a Parental Role; Testing and Evaluation; Third-Party Payments439
15.1Private Schooling for Children With Disabilities439
AChildren With Disabilities in Non-Religious Schools440
BChildren With Disabilities in Religious Schools443
CHome Schools445
15.2Persons in a Parental Role447
15.3Testing and Evaluation449
AEvaluation Procedures449
15.4Independent Educational Evaluations451
15.5Third-Party Payments454
APrivate Insurance454
BMedicaid Reimbursement459
Chapter 16IDEA: Procedural Issues462
16.1Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies462
16.2Statutes of Limitation466
16.3Judicial Review468
AScope of Review470
BRight to Trial by Jury471
CDue Weight---Given for What472
16.4Burden of Proof473
16.5Impartiality of Hearing Officers473
Chapter 17IDEA: Remedies475
17.3Sovereign Immunity483
17.4Compensatory Educational Services484
17.5Attorneys' Fees486
APrevailing Party487
BCalculation of Fees489
Chapter 18Section 504 and the ADA: Elementary and Secondary Education493
18.1Applicability of Section 504493
18.2Procedural and Substantive Aspects of Section 504497
AProcedural Aspects497
BSubstantive Issues498
18.3Rights of Parents Under Section 504501
18.4Applicability of Title II of the ADA502
18.5Rights of Students in Private Schools Under Section 504 and the ADA504
Chapter 19Disciplining Students With Disabilities506
19.1Impact of the IDEA and Section 504506
19.2Honig v. Doe: Procedural Safeguards506
19.3Interplay Between IDEA and Section 504509
19.4Change in Placement510
19.5The 1997 and 2004 Amendments512
19.6Children Classified as Disabled After the Misbehavior at Issue516
19.7In-School Discipline518
19.8Expungement of Records519
19.9Police Intervention and Juvenile Court519