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Call # KF3783 .N65 2011
Author Nolon, John R
Title Climate change and sustainable development law in a nutshell / by John R. Nolon, Patricia E. Salkin
Imprint St. Paul, MN : West, c2011
Book Cover


Descript. xxxix, 479 p. ; 19 cm
Series West nutshell series
Nutshell series
Subject Climatic changes -- Law and legislation -- United States
Sustainable development -- Law and legislation -- United States
Alt Author Salkin, Patricia E
OCLC # 690332198
Table of Contents
 About The Authorsv
 Table Of Casesxxxv
ch. One Historical, Scientific, and Legal Background1
1.Climate Change: International Back-ground1
A.Road to Rio1
B.1992: The Rio Accords3
C.1997: The Kyoto Protocol5
D.2009: The Copenhagen Accord6
E.Importance of Emission Caps8
2.Sustainable Development and Climate Change12
A.Stockholm Convention on the Human Environment12
B.Rio Declaration and Agenda 21: Sustainable Development and Land Use14
C.1996: The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements18
D.2002: The Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development19
E.2005: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment20
3.Scientific Background: Causes and Consequences of Climate Change22
4.Sustainable Development and Climate Change Management26
A.Relevance of Sustainable Land Use Planning and Law26
B.Importance of Integrated Governmental Planning30
C.Evidence of Compliance With the Rio Accords33
D.Land Use Patterns in the U.S and Climate Change40
5.Conclusion: Climate Change and Sustainable Development Law44
ch. Two Federal, State, and Local Legal Systems49
1.Interrelationship of Federal, State and Local Law49
2.Federal Limitations on State and Local Environmental and Land Use Laws53
B.Federal Preemption of Siting and Permitting56
C.Dormant Commerce Clause59
D.Vehicle Emissions61
3.State Preemption of Local Environmental and Land Use Laws63
4.Cooperative Federalism66
A.Regional Climate Registry and Reduction Initiatives74
B.Regional Transportation Planning78
C.Regional and Intermunicipal Land Use Planning81
6.Public Participation85
7.Toward a Reflexive Legal System for Managing Climate Change86
ch. Three Federal Policy, Regulation, and Markets88
1.Breadth of Federal Actions88
2.Early Federal Climate Change Progress89
A.National Climate Program Act of 197889
B.Global Climate Protection Act of 198792
C.Global Change Research Act of 199094
3.Clean Air Act, EPA, and Greenhouse Gas Regulation97
A.EPA's Regulatory Authority Over GHG Emissions97
B.EPA's Regulatory Response102
4.Federal Nuisance Litigation103
5.Role of Environmental Impact Assessment in Mitigating Climate Change107
6.Energy Law and Sustainability112
7.Federal Actions Regulating Vehicles and Fuels116
8.Renewable Portfolio Standards118
9.Coastal Policy and Disaster Management120
10.Transportation, Housing, and Environmental Policy126
ch. Four State and Regional Climate Change Policy and Regulation129
1.Actions in the Absence of Federal Initiatives129
2.State Greenhouse Gas Emissions Caps129
3.Climate Action Plans132
4.Comprehensive Planning Requirements135
5.Environmental Review Statutes142
A.Environmental Review of GHG Emission Impacts143
B.Environmental Review of Clean Energy Projects145
C.Balancing Sustainability Interests Under Mini-NEPAs148
6.Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Measures149
A.Renewable Portfolio Standards150
B.Net Metering154
C.Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives157
D.Green Building and Energy Efficient Building Standards159
E.Electric Appliance Efficiency Standards161
7.Water Conservation163
8.Vehicle Emissions Regulations167
ch. Five Local Climate Action Plans, Sustainability, and Comprehensive Planning171
1.Importance of State and Local Actions171
2.Source and Nature of Municipal Authority to Enact Climate Change Laws173
A.Statutory Enabling Acts173
B.Police Power and Home Rule174
3.Land Use Regulations177
A.Mixed Use Zoning177
B.Cluster Development Regulations181
C.Walkable Subdivisions182
D.Agricultural Zoning Districts183
E.Transfer of Development Rights Programs184
F.Parking Ordinances185
G.Green Building186
H.Green Roofs187
I.Zoning to Facilitate Renewable Energy Uses190
4.Local Food Programs190
5.Green Procurement Laws192
6.Hybrid/Low Emissions Vehicles Fleet Conversions194
7.Recycling, Composting, and Volume-Based Garbage Collection Pricing195
8.Local Carbon Taxes196
9.Water Conservation197
10.Comprehensive Plans and Climate Action Plans199
A.Comprehensive Plans199
B.Climate Action Plans202
ch. Six Energy Efficient Buildings209
1.Buildings, Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and the Law209
2.Energy Code Basics212
A.General Coverage and Legal Authority212
B.International Energy Conservation Code213
C.ASHRAE Standard 90.1214
D.Code Enforcement and the Building Approval Process215
3.Code Enhancement217
A.Legal Authority to Require or Incentivize Enhancements217
B.Energy Star Standards220
C.ASHRAE Standard 189.1223
D.Core Performance223
E.Combined Heat and Power224
F.Requiring Energy Efficient Appliances224
G.Existing Buildings226
H.Using PACE Financing for Energy Retrofits229
4.Land Use Regulations and Energy Efficiency in Buildings231
A.Land Use Objectives Include Energy Conservation231
B.Passive Solar, Building Form, and Orientation233
C.Building Commissioning234
D.Systems Approaches to Building Design235
E.Land Use Approval Protocols235
5.Federal Law Strategies236
A.Promoting Energy Code Updates and Compliance237
ch. Seven Green Buildings and Sites242
1.Emergence of Green Building Laws242
2.Requiring and Incentivizing Green Buildings245
3.Incorporating Third Party Standards247
A.Mandating Third Party Standards247
iii.Green Globes249
iv.Living Building Challenge250
v.ASHRAE Standard 189.1250
vi.International Green Construction Code251
B.Possible Unintended Consequences251
i.Problems Obtaining a Certificate of Occupancy251
ii.Impact on Project Financing252
iii.Liability Concerns253
iv.Antitrust Issues254
v.Violation of the Non-Delegation Doctrine254
vi.Other Concerns255
C.Circumventing Practical and Legal Problems256
D.Encouraging Compliance Using Incentives259
4.Greening Government Buildings and Operations263
5.Green Buildings That Reduce Fossil Fuel Consumption by Automobiles266
6.Sustainable Sites268
7.International Green Construction Code270
ch. Eight Green Neighborhoods and Transit Oriented Development278
1.Neighborhood Scale and Sustainable Development278
2.LEED for Neighborhood Development281
A.Overview of the LEED-ND Rating System281
B.Municipal Use of LEED-ND to Guide Land Development284
C.Examples of Local Government Action288
3.Transit Oriented Development290
A.TOD and Climate Change Mitigation290
B.Transportation and Land Use Planning291
C.Local TOD Case Studies294
D.Transportation Efficient Development297
4.Green Infrastructure299
A.Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Land Use Planning & Regulations300
B.Green Roof Initiatives302
C.Rainwater Collection Requirements304
D.Xeriscaping Requirements305
5.District Energy Systems306
6.Environmental Justice309
ch. Nine Renewable Energy: Wind, Solar, and Beyond318
1.Land Use and Renewable Energy Facilities318
2.Wind Power320
A.State Role in Siting322
B.Local Control324
3.Solar Power328
A.Local Efforts to Regulate & Promote Photovoltaics329
B.State Regulations334
C.Homeowners Associations and Restrictive Covenants336
4.Nuisance Issues337
5.Federal Siting Issues337
6.Renewable Portfolio Standards339
7.Net Metering341
8.Renewable Energy Financial Incentives341
ch. Ten Sequestration344
1.What Is Sequestration?344
2.International Conventions That Promote Sequestration350
3.Domestic Federal and State Initiatives353
4.Local Environmental Protection and Sequestration357
A.Tree Canopy Ordinances/Urban Forests360
B.Timber Harvesting Ordinances363
C.Density Bonuses365
D.Cluster Development368
E.Transfer of Development Rights372
F.Conservation Subdivisions and Low Impact Development373
G.Site Plan Regulations, Preservation and Sequestration376
H.Protecting Property Rights and Land Acquisition379
I.Land Acquisition Strategies380
i.Eminent Domain381
ii.Conservation Easements382
iii.Purchase of Development Rights383
iv.Local Financing Sources385
v.State Financing Sources386
ch. Eleven Sea Level Rise Adaptation and Resiliency391
1.Adjusting to Climate Change391
A.Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, and Natural Disasters391
B.Adaptation: Sea Level Rise Planning395
C.Resiliency: Disaster Planning397
A.State Responses400
i.Studies and Planning400
iii.Planning and Regulation403
iv.Ownership Through the Public Trust407
B.Local Sea Level Rise Initiatives408
i.Land Use Planning408
ii.Infrastructure Planning409
iii.Impact Analysis410
iv.Set-back Provisions410
v.Zoning Limits and Restrictions411
vi.Overlay Zoning412
vii.Subdivision and Site Plan Regulations413
viii.Special Use Permits414
ix.Low Impact Development415
x.Development Agreements415
xi.Protection of Natural Resources416
xii.Groundwater Protection417
xiii.Intermunicipal Planning and Action417
A.Resiliency and Land Use Law418
B.Local Initiatives420
4.Other Tools and Techniques422
5.Property Rights and the Rising Sea424
 Appendix: Internet Guide to Climate Change & Sustainable Development Research430