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Call # KF9325.A7 E84 2011
Author Eskridge, William N., Jr., 1951-
Title Sexuality, gender, and the law / by William N. Eskridge, Jr., Nan D. Hunter
Imprint New York, N.Y. : Foundation Press Thomson/West, 2011
Edition 3rd ed
Book Cover
LOCATION CALL NO. STATUS
 WMS STACKS  KF9325.A7 E84 2011    AVAILABLE
 CASEBOOK RESERVE  KF9325.A7 E84 2011 c.2  RECENTLY RETURNED
 CASEBOOK RESERVE  KF9325.A7 E84 2011  2013 suppl    AVAILABLE
 CASEBOOK RESERVE  KF9325.A7 E84 2011  2013 suppl    AVAILABLE

Details

Descript. xxxix, 1162 p. : ill. ; 27 cm
Series University casebook series
Note Includes bibliographical references and index
Subject Sex crimes -- United States -- Cases
Sex and law -- United States -- Cases
Sex discrimination -- Law and legislation -- United States -- Cases
Alt Author Hunter, Nan D
OCLC # 728086729
Table of Contents
 Introductionv
 Acknowledgmentsix
 Table of Casesxxix
ch. 1Regulation of Sexuality and Gender Before Casey and Lawrence1
1.Contraception, Abortion, and the Privacy Right3
A.Feminist Foundations of the Right to Sexual Privacy4
 New York v. Sanger5
 Early Birth Control Movement6
 Paul and Pauline Poe et al. v. Abraham Ullman9
 Estelle Griswold et al. v. Connecticut12
 Notes on Griswold and the Right of Sexual Privacy14
 Foundational Critiques of the Right of Privacy17
 Robert Bork, "Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems"18
B.Expanding Right of Sexual Privacy19
 Thomas Eisenstadt v. William Baird20
 Notes on Eisenstadt and the Expanding Privacy Right24
C.Right to Choose Abortion25
 Jane Roe v. Henry Wade26
 Notes on Roe and the Right to Abortion28
2.Era of Sodomy Law30
A.Sodomy: "The Utterly Confused Category"30
 Note on Medicalization and Morality33
 Clive Michael Boutilier v. Immigration and Naturalization Service33
 Note on Challenging Medical Grounds for Penalizing Sexual Minorities36
 Michael Bowers v. Michael Hardwick et al.37
 Notes on Bowers v. Hardwick45
 Commonwealth of Kentucky v. Jeffrey Wasson49
 Note on the Kentucky Sodomy Case50
 Jed Rubenfeld, "The Right of Privacy"50
 Note on the Rubenfeld Critique: What Is the Proper Basis of a Constitutional Privacy Right?53
3.Gender Disguise and Expression54
A.When Clothes Make the (Wo)Man54
 People of the State of New York v. Mauricio Archibald55
 City of Chicago v. Wallace Wilson and Kim Kimberley56
 Notes on the Decline and Fall of Cross-Dressing Statutes57
B.Rise of the Medical Model58
 Transsex Persons58
 Intersex Persons59
 Medical Model in Law60
C.Competing Discourses61
 In the Matter of Jean Doe, By Her Next Friend, David Pumo v. William C. Bell, As Commissioner of New York City Administration of Children's Services61
 Susan Etta Keller, "Crisis of Authority: Medical Rhetoric and Transsexual Identity"63
4.Sex and Sexual Orientation Discrimination66
A.Equal Protection and Discrimination Based on Sex67
 Sharon Frontiero and Joseph Frontiero v. Elliot Richardson68
 Notes on Arguments for Heightened Scrutiny for Classifications Based on Sex72
 Pregnancy Cases (LaFleur; Geduldig; Gilbert)73
 Curtis Craig v. David Boren75
 Note on the Defeat of the Era and the Court's Post-Craig Sex Discrimination Jurisprudence76
 United States v. Virginia77
 Katherine Franke, "The Central Mistake of Sex Discrimination Law: The Disaggregation of Sex from Gender"85
 Note on the VMI Case and the Disaggregation of Sex From Gender86
 Tuan Anh Nguyen v. INS87
 Notes on Judicial Deference and State Justifications for Certain Sex Discriminations89
B.Equal Protection and Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation90
 Clifford Norton v. John Macy et al.92
 Note on the Development of Equal Protection Claims for Gay Persons93
 Perry Watkins v. United States Army94
 Nan D. Hunter, "Life After Hardwick"97
 Note on the Immutability "Requirement" for Suspect Classifications and Its Relevance to Sexual Orientation98
 Roy Romer v. Richard Evans100
 Notes on Romer v. Evans112
C.Sex and Sexual Orientation Relationship in Constitutional Law114
 John Singer and Paul Barwick v. Lloyd Hara114
 Ninia Baehr and Genora Dancel et al. v. John Lewin115
 Note on the Subsequent History of the Sex Discrimination Argument for Gay Marriage117
 Andrew Koppelman, "Why Discrimination Against Lesbians and Gay Men is Sex Discrimination"118
 Notes on the Sex Discrimination Argument for Same-Sex Marriage119
 Concluding Note on Levels of Equal Protection Scrutiny121
5.Speech and Expressive Association122
A.From Obscenity to Political Speech123
 Gay Students Organization of the University of New Hampshire v. Thomas Bonner125
 Notes on Student Organization Cases127
 National Gay Task Force v. Board of Education of the City of Oklahoma City127
 Gay Law Students Association et al. v. Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co.129
 Notes on "Coming Out" as Political Activity131
B.From Obscenity to Indecency132
 Feminist Porn Wars133
 American Booksellers Association, Inc. v. William Hudnut, III135
 Note on the Indianapolis Pornography Case140
 Note on the Racialization of Sexual Speech141
 Luke Records, Inc. et al. v. Nick Navarro142
 Kimberle Williams Crenshaw, "Mapping The Margins: Inter-sectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color"142
 Note on Viewpoint Discrimination and the Culture Wars145
 Note on Expressive Conduct and the Public Nudity Cases147
 David Cole, "Playing By Pornography's Rules: The Regulation of Sexual Expression"148
C.Identity, Viewpoint and Expressive Association151
 John Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Group of Boston151
 Note on Hurley, State Action, and the Speech-Identity Divide155
 Note on the Right of (Expressive) Association157
 Kathryn Roberts v. United States Jaycees157
 Boy Scouts of America et al. v. James Dale158
 Notes on the Boy Scouts Case and Expressive Identity Law170
ch. 2Watershed: Casey and Lawrence175
1.Casey: The Constitutional Compromise on Abortion177
A.Center Holds177
 Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Robert Casey178
 Notes on Casey185
B.Applying Casey's Undue Burden Standard188
 Greenville Women's Clinic, et al. v. Douglas E. Bryant188
 Note on the Undue Burden Standard and the Availability of Abortions192
C.Legislative Compromise on Public Funding194
2.Lawrence v. Texas: The Inscrutable Standard197
A.Repudiation of Bowers v. Hardwick197
 On the Eve of Lawrence197
 Note on the Status of Consensual Sodomy Laws, June 2003198
 John Geddes Lawrence and Tyron Garner v. Texas199
 Notes on Lawrence216
B.Reach of Lawrence221
 Steven Lofton et al. v. Secretary of the Department of Children and Social Services et al.221
 On Petition for Rehearing En Banc225
 Note on Lofton and the Eleventh Circuit's Battles Over Lawrence231
 Reliable Consultants, Inc. v. Earle231
 Margaret Witt v. Department of the Air Force232
 Margaret Witt v. Department of the Air Force236
 Notes on the Progeny of Lawrence237
C.Transnational Dimensions of Sodomy Law Reform239
 National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v. The Minister of Justice239
 Naz Foundation v. Government of NCT [National Capital Territory] of Delhi and others242
 Notes on NCGLE and Naz Foundation243
3.Post-Lawrence Regulation of Sexual Conduct245
A.State Regulation of Sex for Compensation247
 Terri Jean Bedford, et al. v. Attorney General of Canada248
 Note on Bedford and Constitutional Challenges to Anti-Prostitution Laws in the United States251
B.Which Spaces Are Private?251
 Joel Dulay Singson v. Commonwealth of Virginia252
 Note on Sexual Solicitation and the Criminal Law254
C.What Is Consensual?254
 Regina v. Anthony Brown et al.254
 Note on Consensual SM258
D.What Is an Adult?258
 Claudia Konker, "Rethinking Child Sexual Abuse: An Anthropological Perspective"263
 Notes on Normative Theories of Intergenerational Sex265
 Bellotti v. Baird267
 Jane Hodgson, M.D., et al. v. Minnesota268
 Jane Hodgson, et al. v. Minnesota, et al270
 Notes on Parental Notification Abortion Laws and Parental Control Over Their Daughters' Sexuality270
 Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County271
 State of Kansas v. Matthew R. Limon273
 Note on Gendered Regulation of Adolescent Sexuality274
E.Adultery274
 Lewell Marcum v. James McWhorter275
 Notes on the Law of Adultery280
F.What Is Incest? And Why Is It Illegal?281
 Commonwealth v. Dawud Rahim281
 Benton v. State283
 Notes on State Regulation of Incest284
ch. 3Twenty-First Century's Liberty-Equality Debates287
1.Reproductive Rights: Regret as the New Objection to Abortion289
 Alberto R. Gonzales v. Leroy Carhart et al.291
 Notes on Carhart and the Evolving Right to Privacy299
 Planned Parenthood Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota v. Mike Rounds305
 Note on the New Wave of Laws Seeking to Create a Society Where Abortion Choice Is Very Difficult309
2.Liberty, Equality, and Marriage311
A.Same-Sex Marriage Movement Before Lawrence: Gay Couples as Threats to Marriage311
 Richard and Mildred Loving v. Virginia311
 Notes on Loving, The Case for Same-Sex Marriage, and Justifications for Same-Sex Marriage Bars314
B.Post-Lawrence Gay Marriage Breakthrough in New England---and New Libertarian Objections to Marriage Equality319
 Hillary Goodridge et al. v. Department of Public Health320
 Notes on the Massachusetts Same-Sex Marriage Case and Its Aftermath323
 David Parker; Tonia Parker; Joshua Parker; Jacob Parker; Joseph Robert Wirthlin; Robin Wirthlin; Jospeph Robert Wirthlin Jr. v. William Hurley et al.326
 Notes on the Free Exercise of Religion and Liberty-Based Objections to Marriage Equality329
 Nancy Gill and Marcelle LeTourneau et al. v. Office of Personnel Management et al.330
 Note on the Massachusetts DOMA Cases336
C.California Marriage Equality Cases337
 In re Marriage Cases337
 Notes on the California Same-Sex Marriage Cases348
 Note on Proposition 8 and Liberty-Protecting Arguments Against Marriage Equality352
 Karen L. Strauss et al. v. Mark B. Horton et al.354
 Notes on the State Court Challenge to Proposition 8: What Is a Constitution For?361
 Kristin M. Perry, Sandra B. Stier, Paul T. Katami and Jeffrey J. Zarrillo, and the City and County of San Francisco v. Arnold Schwarzenegger (Governor), Edmund G. Brown Jr. (Attorney General) et al365
 Note on the District Court Opinion in Perry368
 Note on Whether the Marriage Equality Movement Was a Queer Error369
 Paula L. Ettelbrick, "Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?"370
 Thomas Stoddard, "Why Gay People Should Seek the Right to Marry"371
 Notes on the Ettelbrick-Stoddard Debate373
3.Religious Liberty versus LGBT Equality377
 Gay Rights Coalition of Georgetown University Law Center et al. v. Georgetown University379
 Notes on the Georgetown Case and the Interaction of Conduct, Status, and Viewpoint389
 Christian Legal Society Chapter of the University of California, Hastings College of the Law v. Leo Martinez391
 Notes on the Christian Legal Society Case398
 Tyler Chase Harper v. Poway Unified School District400
 Note on "Hate Speech" and Religious Discourse404
ch. 4Theories of Sexuality, Gender, and the Law407
1.Natural Law Theories of Sexuality, Gender, and the Law411
 John Finnis, "Law, Morality, and S̀exual Orientation'"414
 Notes on the New Natural Law's Theory of Sexuality and Gender Role417
 Stephen Macedo, "Homosexuality and the Conservative Mind"421
 Notes on a Newer Natural Law Open to Sexual Minorities423
 Notes on a Different Kind of Natural Law Theory: Evolutionary Psychology (Sociobiology)425
2.Modern or Liberal Theories of Sexuality, Gender, and the Law431
A.Economic Theories435
 Note on Richard Posner's Cost-Benefit Theory of Sexual Activities436
 Gary Becker, A Treatise on the Family438
 Notes on the Becker Thesis of the Family as a Gendered Situs of Specialization439
 Carol Rose, "Women and Property: Gaining and Losing Ground"443
 Notes on the Consequences of Women's "Taste for Cooperation"444
B.Feminist Theories445
 Catharine A. MacKinnon, "Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: An Agenda for Theory"446
 Notes on Radical Feminism and the Relationship Between Compulsory Heterosexuality and Patriarchy448
 Gayle Rubin, "Thinking Sex: Note for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality"452
 Note on the Clash Between MacKinnon's and Rubin's Theories of Sexuality, Gender, and the Law458
 Robin West, "The Difference in Women's Hedonic Lives: A Phenomenological Critique of Feminist Legal Theory"460
 Mary Dunlap, "The Constitutional Rights of Sexual Minorities: A Crisis of the Male/Female Dichotomy"462
 Notes on Feminist Theory and Transsex and Intersex Persons463
 Note on Critical Race Theory and Feminism467
 Kimberle Crenshaw, "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color"468
 Notes on Intersectionality and Its Implications for the Constitutional Politics of Sexuality and Gender471
 Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, The Anatomy of Prejudices473
 Notes on Young-Bruehl's Theory of Prejudice and Implications for Constitutional Rights475
C.Historical Theories of Sexuality, Gender, and the Law476
 John D'Emilio, "Capitalism and Gay Identity"476
 Note on Capitalism and Medicalization (Transgender and Intersex Persons)480
 Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America480
 Note on the Survival of Natural Law Tropes Through a Modernization of Justification481
 William N. Eskridge, Jr., "Some Effects of Identity-Based Social Movements on Constitutional Law in the Twentieth Century"483
 Notes on Identity-Based Social Movements and Constitutional Rights486
3.Post-Liberal Theories of Sexuality, Gender, and the Law489
A.Social Constructionist Theories491
1.Sexuality as a Social Construction (Michel Foucault)491
 Note on Feminism and Foucault496
 State v. Marvin Kaiser499
 Notes on Foucault and Incest, Statutory Rape, and Rape501
2.Gender and Sex as Social Constructions504
 Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity504
 Price Waterhouse v. Ann Hopkins506
 Notes on Hopkins and Law's Invocation of Gender511
 Note on Social Constructionist Theories and Identity Politics513
3.Disease (AIDS) as a Social Construction515
 Linda Singer, "Bodies---Pleasures---Powers"516
 Note on Aids and New Discourses of the Body518
 Russell K. Robinson, "Racing the Closet"519
 Note on the Raced Closet and Aids Policy521
B.Post-Liberal Theories of Identity and Strategies of Empowerment521
 Erving Goffman, Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity522
 Note on Goffmanian Strategies for Dealing With Stigma: Passing, Covering, and Microaggressing524
 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, The Epistemology of the Closet525
 Note on "Double Binds" and the Law532
 Marjorie Rowland v. Mad River Local School District533
 Note on the Mad River Case, The Construction of Heterosexuality, and the Erasure of Bisexuality535
 Note on Minoritizing Versus Universalizing Strategies for Sex, Gender, and Sexual Minorities536
 Sonia Katyal, "Exporting Identity"538
C.Role of Law in the Social Construction Process542
 Ellen Ross and Rayna Rapp, "Sex and Society: A Research Note From Social History and Anthropology"543
 Dean Spade, "Documenting Gender"545
 Noa Ben-Asher, "The Necessity of Sex Change: A Struggle for Intersex and Transsex Liberties"550
 Note on the Law's Construction of Transsex and Intersex Identities552
 Jed Rubenfeld, "The Right to Privacy"553
 Note on Foucault and Constitutional Discourse555
ch. 5Sexuality, Gender, and the Law in the Workplace557
 Rosemary Pringle, "Sexuality at Work"560
 Vicki Schultz, "The Sanitized Workplace"564
 Debate on the Employment Non-Discrimination Act [ENDA]566
1.Sexuality at Work567
 Overview: Fragmented Legal Regimes567
A.Office Closet570
 John Singer v. U.S. Civil Service Commission570
 Notes on Singer and the Fall of the Civil Service Exclusion572
 Continuing Double Bind573
 Robin Joy Shahar v. Michael Bowers574
 Notes on Shahar582
 Wendy Weaver v. Nebo School District, et al.583
 Notes on Constitutional Claims for Workplace Equality585
B.Partner Benefits585
 Christine Tanner et al. v. Oregon Health Sciences University, et al.587
 Alaska Civil Liberties Union, et al. v. State of Alaska, et al.590
 National Pride at Work v. Governor of Michigan591
 Notes on Employment Benefits as a Political Football594
C.Mixing Religion and Sexuality in the Workplace595
 Leigh Cline v. Catholic Diocese of Toledo596
 Glynda L. Hall v. Baptist Memorial Health Care Corp.599
 Sandra M. Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.602
 Notes on Workplace Collisions Between Religion and Sexuality605
2.Work of Gender607
A.Pregnancy607
 Note on the Equal Treatment/Special Treatment Debate and the PDA's Application to Pregnancy-Based Protections609
 California Federal Savings and Loan Association v. Mark Guerra610
 Note on Subsequent Parental Leave Legislation613
 Crystal Chambers v. Omaha Girls Club, Inc.614
 Note on Chambers and Critical Race Theory617
 In re: Union Pacific Railroad Employment Practices Litigation618
 Notes on Union Pacific and Disparate Impact of Employment Policies620
B.Gender Rebels622
 Price Waterhouse v. Ann B. Hopkins623
 Note on Hopkins and Title VII's Application to Gender Stereotype Discrimination623
 Mary Anne C. Case, "Disaggregating Gender from Sex and Sexual Orientation: The Effeminate Man in the Law and Feminist Jurisprudence," 105 Yale L.J. 1, 5 (1995)624
 Darlene Jespersen v. Harrah's Operating Co., Inc.625
 Note on Jesperson and Grooming in the Workplace631
C.Transgender Issues631
 Diane Schroer v. James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress633
 Notes on Sex Discrimination Claims by Transgender Plaintiffs638
 Krystal Etsitty v. Utah Transit Authority640
 Julienne Goins v. West Group642
3.Sexual Harassment645
A.Meaning of "Sexual Harassment"645
 Joseph Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., et al.646
 Notes on Same-Sex Harassment650
 Note on Semantic Theories of What "Because of Sex" Might Mean650
B.Competing Paradigms651
C.Sex---Sexual Orientation Convergence in Harassment Cases653
 Medina Rene v. MGM Grand Hotel, Inc.653
 Brian D. Prowel v. Wise Business Forms, Inc.658
 Notes on Homosexualized Harassment660
ch. 6Families We Choose: Privatization and Plurality in Family Law663
 Martha Albertson Fineman, The Neutered Mother, the Sexual Family and Other Twentieth Century Tragedies664
1.Privatization of Family Law670
A.Introduction671
 Jana Singer, "The Privatization of Family Law"671
 Notes on Privatization and the Decline of Marriage678
 Note on Feminist Thinking About Privatization682
 Note on the American Law Institute's Principles of the Law of Family Dissolution (2002)684
B.Extending Some of the Duties and Benefits of Marriage to Cohabiting (Unmarried) Couples: Judicial Decisions686
 Michelle Marvin v. Lee Marvin687
 Notes on Marvin and Judicial Treatment of Contractual Claims by Cohabiting Partners689
 Trilogy of Cases Involving Asserted Rights of Cohabiting (Same-Sex) Partners Against Third Parties693
 Miguel Braschi v. Stahl Associates Company693
 In re Guardianship of Sharon Kowalski695
 Frank Vasquez v. Joseph Hawthorne697
 Notes on Lesbian and Gay Partners Asserting Rights Against Third Parties698
 American Law Institute700
 Note on the Ali's Proposed "Domestic Partnership" Status702
C.Extending Some of the Benefits of Marriage to Cohabiting Couples: Domestic Partnership Laws702
 Milagros Irizarry v. Board of Education of City of Chicago706
 Notes on Irizarry and State-Recognized Unions711
2.Emerging Menu of Relationship Options713
A.Old Regime: Marriage713
B.Same-Sex Marriage Debate and New Institutions of Family Recognition714
 Note on Professor Waaldijk's Small-Steps Theory of Same-Sex Marriage Recognition727
C.Emerging Regime: A Menu of State-Recognized Family Forms727
 William N. Eskridge, Jr., Equality Practice: Civil Unions and the Future of Gay Rights727
 Notes on the Expanding Menu of State-Recognized Family Forms732
3.Interstate & International Recognition of New Families734
A.Interstate and Federal Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages734
 Notes on Interstate Recognition of Same-Sex Unions or Marriages734
 Margaret R. Chambers v. Cassandra B. Ormiston738
 Whether Out-of-State Same-Sex Marriage That Is Valid in the State of Celebration May Be Recognized in Maryland740
 Notes on Interstate Marriage Recognition Law742
B.Interstate Recognition of Civil Unions or Domestic Partnerships744
 John Langan v. St. Vincent's Hospital744
 Notes on Langan and Interstate Recognition of Civil Unions748
 Note on Federal Recognition of Non-Marital Partnerships749
C.International Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages and Partnerships753
 Yossi Ben-Ari v. Director of Population Administration, Ministry of Interior753
 Note on Trans-National Relationship Recognition757
ch. 7Polyparenting and Families of Choice761
1.Surrogacy, Custody, and Visitation767
A.Surrogacy and Baby-Selling767
 In The Matter of Baby M.768
 C., on Behalf of T. v. G. and E771
 Note on Statutes and Cases Governing Traditional (Baby M) Surrogacy and Gestational Surrogacy772
 K.M. v. E.G.775
 Notes on Critiques and Defenses of Surrogacy and Baby-Selling776
 Marla Hollandsworth, "Gay Men Creating Families Through Surro-Gay Arrangements: A Paradigm for Reproductive Freedom"780
 Note on Stanley v. Illinois and the Constitutional Rights of Biological Fathers783
 Michael H. v. Gerald D.784
B.Custody and Visitation785
1.Child Custody as a Form of Morals Regulation785
 Linda Sidoti Palmore v. Anthony Sidoti786
 Note on the Implications of Palmore v. Sidoti787
2.Sexuality, Gender, and Custody787
 Notes on the Nexus Approach in Operation: The Perseverance of Anti-Homosexual Tropes789
 Pamela Kay Bottoms v. Sharon Lynne Bottoms792
 Ex parte D.W.W.795
 Note on Bottoms, D.W.W., and the Modernization and Sedimentation of Antigay Discourse797
 Suzanne Lindley Daly, formerly known as Tim Daly v. Nan Toews Daly798
 Notes on Daly and Discrimination Against Transgender Parents801
3.Privacy Concerns801
 Jenifer Troxel et vir. v. Tommie Granville802
C.Social Science Evidence for Lesbian, Gay, and Transgender Parenting805
 Judith Stacey and Timothy Biblarz, "(How) Does Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?"806
 Note on Studies of Children Raised by Transgender Parents807
2.Adoption, Parenthood by Estoppel, and De Facto Parenting809
A.Adoption811
 In Re Adoption of Charles B.811
 Note on Sexual Minorities and Adoption813
 Steven Lofton et al. v. Secretary of the Department of Children and Social Services et al.815
 In re: Matter of Adoption of X.X.G. and N.R.G.816
 Note on Race and Adoption818
B.De Facto or Psychological Parenthood819
 V.C. v. M.J.B.820
 Note on Psychological or De Facto Parents, and Parents by Estoppel826
 Note on Critiques of De Facto, Psychological, or Estoppel Parenthood829
C.Second-Parent Adoptions830
 In re M.M.D. & B.H.M.831
 Notes on Race, Sexual Orientation, and Second-Parent Adoptions834
 Chris Titchenal v. Diane Dexter838
 Lisa Miller-Jenkins v. Janet Miller-Jenkins840
 Note on Interstate Custody and Parenting Disputes844
 Note on the New District of Columbia Law Assuring That Children Will Have Two Mothers844
3.Polyparenting846
 In re Thomas S. v. Robin Y.847
 Note on Robin Y.'s Arguments on Appeal853
 Mark LaChapelle v. Denise Mitten853
 Elizabeth Bartholet, "Guiding Principles for Picking Parents"856
ch. 8Sexuality, Gender, and Education859
1.Regulating Expressions of Sexuality and Gender861
A.Inculcation, Critical Thinking, and the First Amendment861
 John Tinker et al. v. Des Moines Independent Community School District861
 Aaron Fricke v. Richard B. Lynch862
 Bethel School District No. 403 v. Matthew Fraser, a Minor, and E.L. Fraser, Guardian Ad Litem864
 Notes on Fraser and the Rock Lobster Case868
 Pat Doe, By Her Next Friend [Grandmother], Jane Doe v. John Yunits871
 Note on the Extent to Which School Boards Can Constitutionally Regulate Students' Gender and Sexual Expression873
 Board of Education, Island Trees Union Free School District No. 26 et al. v. Steven A. Pico875
 Note on Pico and Students' Right to Know878
B.Academic Freedom and Issues of Gender and Sexuality879
 David Solmitz et al. v. Maine School Administration District No. 59881
 Margaret Boring v. Buncombe County Board of Educ.884
 Note on Institutional Control of Sexuality Discourse in Secondary Schools885
 Marjorie Rowland v. Mad River Local School District886
 Transition Note on the Evolution of Discourse Relating to Sexual Minorities in Secondary Schools886
 Tyler Chase Harper v. Poway Unified School District887
 Notes on the High School T-Shirt Wars887
C.Academic Freedom versus the Defense Department888
 Donald H. Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, Inc. et al.889
 Note on the Fair Case and the Limits of Hurley and Dale894
2.Title IX and Gender Reconstruction in Education897
A.Sexual Harassment in Schools898
 James Nabozny v. Mary Podlesny et al.899
 Note on the Department of Education's Title IX Sexual Harassment Guidance900
 Aurelia Davis, Next Friend of LaShonda D. v. Monroe County Board of Education902
 Note on Davis and Anti-Gay Sexual Harassment in Schools908
 David Warren Saxe et al. v. State College Area School District (SCASD) et al.910
B.Title IX and the Revolutionary Expansion of Athletic Programs for Female Students915
 Amy Cohen et al. v. Brown University et al.916
 Notes on Cohen920
 Deborah L. Brake, Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution920
C.Structural Reform: Same-Sex or All-Gay Schools?924
 Notes on Proposals for Female- or Gay-Only Classes and Schools925
 United States v. Virginia929
 Note on the Impact of the VMI Case on the Legality of Same-Sex Educational Institutions931
3.Legal Issues Arising Out of Public Sex Education934
A.Students' Rights to Factually Accurate Instruction as to Sexuality?935
 Alabama Statutes § 16-40A-2, Minimum Contents to be Included in Sex Education Program or Curriculum935
 Bettye Coleman et al. v. Caddo Parish School Board et al.937
 Note on Legal Objections to Morals-Based Sex Education Materials943
B.HIV/AIDS Education943
 Ignacia Alfonso et al. v. Joseph Fernandez et al.946
 Notes on the Legality of Condom Distribution Programs and Parents' Constitutional Rights in Their Children's Upbringing951
 John Ware v. Valley Stream High School District952
 Notes on Free Exercise Rights as Limits on State Sex and HIV/AIDS Education Programs958
 Note on HIV/AIDS Instruction as Possibly Creating a Hostile School Environment for Some Students959
 Comparative Law Note: American Versus European Sex Education Policies960
C.No Promo Homo Education Policies961
 Arizona Revised Statutes § 15-716, Instruction on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome963
 Gay Men's Health Crisis et al. v. Dr. Louis Sullivan965
 Note on Constitutional Challenges to No Promo Homo Policies969
ch. 9U.S. Military Exclusions and the Construction of Manhood971
1.Racial Exclusion and Segregation in the U.S. Armed Services973
 Kenneth L. Karst, "The Pursuit of Manhood and the Desegregation of the Armed Forces"973
 Notes on Racial Segregation in the U.S. Armed Forces (1940s)982
 Note on the Truman Order and the Process of Desegregating the Armed Forces987
2.Exclusion of Women From Combat990
A.History of Women in the Military, 1861-1971990
B.Partial Integration of Women in the Armed Forces, 1971-81993
 Sharon Frontiero and Joseph Frontiero v. Elliott Richardson994
 Bernard Rostker v. Robert Goldberg et al.995
 Note on Rostker and Judicial Deference to Executive and Congressional Military Policies1001
C.Women's Combat Exclusion Under Fire and New Attention to Sexual Harassment1004
 Mady Wechsler Segal, "The Argument for Female Combatants"1005
 Note on Congressional and Administrative Deliberation Over the Women-In-Combat Issue1007
 Department of Defense, Directive 1350.2, "The Defense Military Equal Opportunity Program"1013
 Notes on Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Armed Forces1014
 Note on Pregnancies and Abortions for Military Personnel1018
3.Military's Exclusion of Sexual and Gender Minorities1022
A.Armed Forces' Exclusion of "Sodomites" and Sexual "Deviates"1022
 Joseph Steffan v. William J. Perry1027
 Notes on Steffan and the "Old" Exclusion of Gays From the Armed Forces1033
 Michelle Benecke and Kristin Dodge, "Military Women in Nontraditional Fields: Casualties of the Armed Forces' War on Homosexuals"1035
 Note on Anti-Gay Military Policy as Sex Discrimination1038
B.Don't Ask, Don't Tell, 1993-20111038
 Policy Concerning Homosexuality in the Armed Forces: Hearings Before the Senate Committee on Armed Services1038
 Note on the Aftermath of the Gays in the Military Hearings: The Don't Ask, Don't Tell Statute and Regulations1046
 Note on Discharges Under the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Regime1051
 Note on Don't Ask, Don't Tell Constitutional Challenges and the Deference Issue1053
 Note on Harassment of Gender and Sexual Minorities in the Armed Forces1056
C.Demise of Don't Ask, Don't Tell and Its Aftermath1057
 United States v. Eric P. Marcum1057
 Notes on Marcum and Sex Crimes by Military Personnel1059
 Thomas Cook v. Robert M. Gates1061
 Major Margaret Witt v. Department of the Air Force1063
 Log Cabin Republicans v. United States of America1063
 Note on First Amendment Attacks on Don't Ask, Don't Tell1066
 Department of Defense, Co-Chairs Jeh Charles Johnson & General Carter F. Ham, Report of the Comprehensive Review of the Issues Associated with a Repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"1071
 Note on the Armed Forces' Exclusion of Transgender and Intersex Persons1075
 Diane H. Mazur, A More Perfect Military: How the Constitution Can Make Our Military Stronger1076
 APPENDICES 
1.Individual Rights Provisions from the Amendments to the Constitution of the United States1079
2.Texas Sex Crime Statutes1083
3.Ballot Pamphlet Supporting Amendment 2 to the Colorado Constitution (1992)1097
4.District of Columbia Human Rights Act (Excerpts)1107
5.Proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)1115
6.Proposition 8 Ballot Materials1123
7.State Laws on Same-Sex Marriage and Marriage-Equivalent Statuses (Dec. 31, 2010)1139
8.State Rules Relating to Adoption by Lesbian and Gay Persons and Couples (Dec. 31, 2010)1143
9.Web Sites1145
10.Attorney General's Letter Supporting Heightened Scrutiny for Sexual Orientation Discrimination1151
 Topics Index1157