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Call # K3496 .W46 2013
Author Weiss, Edith Brown, 1942-
Title International law for a water-scarce world / by Edith Brown Weiss
Imprint Leiden : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, [2013]
Book Cover
 INTL  K3496 .W46 2013    AVAILABLE
 McDonough Display  Faculty Publication    NOT AVAILABLE
 SPEC COLL  Faculty Publication    SCRR USE ONLY


Descript. xiii, 343 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Series The Hague Academy of International Law monographs ; volume 7
Hague Academy of International Law monographs ; v. 7
Note Includes bibliographical references (p. [289]-316) and index
Subject Water -- Law and legislation
Water rights (International law)
Right to water
OCLC # 852488690
Table of Contents
 List of Figures and Tablesix
 List of Acronyms and Abbreviationsxi
 Introduction: The Fresh Water Crisis1
I.Problem of Fresh Water Availability3
II.Problem of Water Quality7
III.Implications for Water Law9
ch. I Principles of International Water Law11
I.International Water Law Principles12
A.Absolute territorial sovereignty12
B.Absolute territorial integrity15
C.Prior appropriation16
D.Restricted sovereignty and community of interests21
II.Obligations in International Water Law25
A.substantive rules26
B.procedural rules32
III.Treatment of Ground Water36
A.Territorial sovereignty40
B.Protection of recharge and discharge areas45
C.Prevention of pollution47
D.Conservation of fossil aquifers48
IV.Concluding Comments49
ch. II Challenges For International Water Law51
I.Critique of Existing Water Law51
A.hydrological and ecological perspectives52
B.intergenerational perspective56 perspective58
D.water demand perspective60
E.water security perspective62
 Foreign land and water investments63
 Virtual water issues66
II.Fresh Water as a Global Resource67
A.Fresh water resource depletion and degradation as a global threat67
B.Fresh water resources as a common concern of humankind70
C.Global data on fresh water75
III.Concluding Comments76
ch. III International Water Agreements79
I.History of International Water Agreements80
A.database for international water agreements80 historical trends82
 Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and before84
 twentieth century85
 twenty-first century88
 Evolution in content of the agreements91
 Ground water in international agreements93
C.Historical trends by region96
 Asia-Middle East102
 North-Central America104
 South America107
 Comparisons among regions108
D.agreements as living instruments109
II.Overarching Agreements111
A.1997 United Nations Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses111
B.ILC Draft Articles on Transboundary Aquifers114
C.Other global legal instruments: ILA Rules and the Bellagio Draft Treaty116
III.Concluding Comments119
ch. IV Settlement of International Water Disputes121
I.Trends in the Characteristics of International Water Disputes123
A.subject matter of disputes: the rise of competing uses123
B.disputants: increasing importance of new actors126
II.Dispute Settlement Procedures128
A.International judicial settlement128
B.International arbitration133
C.Fact-finding commissions135
E.Mediation and good offices139
G.experiment with NGO international water tribunals143
H.Rhine navigation tribunals147
I.National courts147
III.Provisions for Dispute Settlement in International Water Agreements151
IV.Concluding Comments157
ch. V Fresh Water Institutions161
I.History and evolution161
II.Scope and coverage166
III.Structure and function170
A.Problem identification and assessment171
B.Information collection and monitoring173
C.Information dissemination and exchange174
D.Coordination of national and international activities175
E.Substantive norm and rulemaking175
F.Supervision and enforcement177
G.Direct operational activities178
H.Dispute resolution179
I.Concluding observations180
V.Concluding Observations188
ch. VI Right to Water191
I.Intragenerational Right to Water196
A.Water quality196
B.Water quantity197
C.Reasonable access199
D.Information, participation, non-discrimination, and access to justice205
II.Intergenerational Aspects of the Right to Water205
III.Legal Bases for A Right to Water209
A.Developments in international recognition of a human right to water209
B.Right to water as embedded in international human rights law214
 Right to adequate standard of living215
 Right to food216
 Right to health217
 Right to life218
 Right to development220
 Independent right to water222
 Concluding comments223
IV.Implementing a Right to Water224
V.Right to Water in National Constitutions and Local Instruments227
VI.Indigenous Peoples' Right to Water231
A.Definition of indigenous people232
B.International recognition of indigenous right to water234
VII.Accompanying Right to Sanitation240
VIII.Concluding Comments241
ch. VII Water Markets and International Trade Law243
I.Transboundary Water Movements245
A.Water flows in international watercourses and transboundary aquifers246
B.Transboundary market in water products249
C.Transfers of bulk water251
 Treaty-based international water transfers251
 Government to government contractual transfers252
 Transfers between government and foreign private party255
 Transfers between private parties in different countries255
 Efforts to limit bulk transfers of water256
II.Relevance of WTO GATT 1994 to Water Markets259
A.Water as a good or product259
B.applicable GATT provisions263
III.Should WTO GATT 1994 Apply to Bulk Water Transfers?266
IV.Options for Clarifying Whether WTO GATT 1994 Applies268
A.Statement and ordinary decision269
B.Authoritative interpretation of the Agreement270
V.Water subsidies and water-related domestic support276
VI.Virtual Water Transfers278
A.concept of virtual water transfers278
B.Water footprints and water-intensity standards280
C.Tariff adjustments and quotas to regulate imports and exports of water-intensive products282
VII.Concluding Comments284
 List of Cases and Arbitrations285