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Call # K3230.R45 S66 2000
Author Spijkerboer, T. (Thomas), 1963-
Title Gender and refugee status / Thomas Spijkerboer
Imprint Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, Vt., USA : Ashgate, c2000
Book Cover
 INTL  K3230.R45 S66 2000    AVAILABLE


Descript. xxx, 255 p. ; 23 cm
Note Includes bibliographical references (p. 237-251) and index
Subject Refugees -- Legal status, laws, etc
Women refugees -- Legal status, laws, etc
Sex discrimination in justice administration
OCLC # 44912728
Table of Contents
 1.1The Emergence of Women as an Issue in Refugee Law1
 1.2Equality as a Variable in Refugee Law4
 1.3Gender, Ethnicity, Discourse6
 1.4Methodological Remarks9
 1.5Outline of the Book12
Chapter 2Female Applicants in Statistics and General Policy15
 2.1The Share of Women in Refugee Populations15
 2.2The Treatment of Women in Asylum Procedures17
 2.3Representativity of the Statistical Data19
 2.4Statistical Data on The Netherlands 1989-199521
 2.5Representativity of the Sample27
 2.6An Introduction to the Sample30
   Sri Lanka34
Chapter 3The Construction of the Female Applicant in Decision Making45
 3.1The Construction of Asylum Applicants45
   The case of Anne (Sri Lanka)46
   The appropriate mother or wife55
   The case of Karen (Zaire)60
 3.3The Concept of the Political Act65
   Emotions or mere personal preferences65
   The case of Betty (China)70
   Desire to improve living circumstances or economic gain74
   (In)voluntary acts77
   Merely subordinate or minor acts77
   The case of Diane (Iran)79
   The attribution of flight motives88
   Conclusion: What is political?92
 3.4The Concept of "Normal" Violence94
   Random violence94
   Rational violence95
   The case of Laurie (Bosnia-Herzegovina)96
   Private violence97
   Minor harms100
   The attribution of motives to potential persecutors100
   Conclusion: What is persecution?101
Chapter 4The Construction of the Female Applicant in Jurisprudence107
 4.3The Failure of State Protection111
 4.4Persecution Grounds115
   Political activities116
   Social mores117
   The one child policy121
   Sexual violence123
 4.5The Singled Out-Criterion and the Motivation Doctrine125
 4.6Conclusion: "Normal" Versus "Women's" Cases128
Chapter 5Counter-Strategies and the Reactions of Governments149
 5.1Resistance to Ethnicisation by Bosnian Applicants149
 5.2Lawyers: The Dissident and the Victim151
   Portrayal as a dissident152
   Portrayal as a victim153
   The dissident versus the victim155
   The case of the Jones family (Turkey)156
 5.3The Feminist Critique of Refugee Law163
   The early critics163
   The human rights approach165
   The anti-essentialist critique169
 5.4The Governmental Reaction: Gender Guidelines172
   Guidelines in Canada, Australia, the United States and The Netherlands173
   An evaluation176
 6.1Gender and Ethnicity in the Family, Sexuality and Reproduction190
 6.2Gender in the Absence of Discrimination193
 6.3The Uses of Women in Present Day Refugee Law196
 6.4Guidelines and Beyond202
 Annex 1Data on the largest countries of origin211
 Annex 2Representativity of the sample217
 Annex 3Number of applications 1989-1994 from the countries in the sample219
 Annex 4Cases from sample by category and outcome221
 Annex 5Reduction of data for computation of correlations225
 Annex 6Comparing data on different countries of refuge227
 Annex 7Translation, prepared by UNHCR, of Dutch Immigration and Naturalisation Service (IND) Work Instruction No. 148: Women in the asylum procedure229
 Annex 8Outline of the Dutch asylum procedure and terminology235